- The drugs used for treatment of palatal myoclonus are clonazepam, sodium valproate, tetrabenazine, haloperidol, trihexyphenidyl HCL and carbamazepine. Other Pharmacologic Agents: Trihexyphenidyl. Types of myoclonus in which trihexyphenidyl may be useful. Palatal; Mechanism of action. Acetylcholine-receptor antagonist, exerts a direct . Two patients are reported with palatal myoclonus, progressive ataxia, and dysarthria, unresponsive to treatment with trihexyphenidyl or L-5-hydroxytryptophan. Palatal myoclonus is an uncommon, rhythmic, . clonazepam, carbamazepine, valproic acid, antiarrhythmics, and trihexyphenidyl. W.: Movement Disorders, 1987; trihexyphenidyl palatal myoclonus 2(2): 93-98; Effectiveness of Trihexyphenidyl Against Pendular Nystagmus and Palatal Myoclonus: Evidence of Cholinergic Effectiveness of trihexyphenidyl against pendular nystagmus and palatal myoclonus: Evidence of cholinergic dysfunction. Movement Disorders 2(2): 98-98, 1987. Anticholinergic drugs, such as benztropine or trihexyphenidyl, may be useful. . Palatal myoclonus secondary to hypertrophic olivary degeneration.(IMAGING. Effectiveness of trihexyphenidyl against pendular nystagmus and palatal myoclonus: evidence of cholinergic dysfunction. Mov Disord 1987; 2: 93 – 98. . Scherokman B., Gunderson C.H., McBurney J.W., McClintock W. (1987) Effectiveness of trihexyphenidyl against pendular nystagmus and palatal myoclonus . [Palato-pharyngo-laryngeal myoclonus]. [Article in Japanese] . is palate-pharyngo-laryngeal type or only palatal type. . Clonazepam, trihexyphenidyl, carbamazepine, 5HTP and caeruletin . “Effectiveness of trihexyphenidyl against pendular nystagmus and palatal myoclonus: evidence of cholinergic
trihexyphenidyl palatal myoclonus
dysfunction.” Mov Disord 2(2): 93-8. vodopa, trihexyphenidyl, valproic acid, propranolol without effect. A mild improvement of . tients who develop palatal myoclonus after a brain insult will have HOD, not all patients . The treatment of choice for essential palatal myoclonus is the administration of medications, including clonazepam, sodium valproate, tetrabenazine, haloperidol, trihexyphenidyl . Pharmacotherapy was attempted with clonazepan, levodopa, trihexyphenidyl, valproic . Although virtually all patients who develop palatal myoclonus after a brain insult will . Herishanu Y, Louzoun Z. Trihexyphenidyl treatment of vertical pendular nystagmus. . in degenerative disorders of the nervous system, in persons with palatal myoclonus, in .
Please read my comments on the bottom of this article.
Palatal Myoclonus: Treatment with Clostridium botulinum Toxin Injection
Palatal myoclonus is a rare movement disorder of the soft palate marked by involuntary rhythmic contractions occurring from 40 to 240 times per minute. Synchronous audible clicking tinnitus accompanies the palatal contractions. Therapy in the past for palatal myoclonus has been less than optimal and riddled with side effects from multiple medications. The advent of botulinum toxin in the treatment of movement disorders has opened a whole new avenue for therapy. The following case details one of the new and expanding ways to implement botulinum toxin in the treatment of palatal myoclonus.
A 59-year-old woman had an 8-year history of gradual onset bilateral ear clicking. The clicking worsened to the point at which the patient’s husband heard it at night, and the patient noticed contractile movements of her soft palate and uvula. She denied any history of neurologic disorders or head trauma.
Evaluation revealed normal tympanic membranes with no obvious movement or clicking during gross palatal contractions. Nasopharyngoscopy and the neurologic examination were normal. Pure-tone audiometry was normal, and a magnetic resonance image showed no detectable central nervous system lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed with a reflex decay mode tracing of left ear stimulation, which displayed irregular movements of the tympanic membrane corresponding to the patient’s complaint of clicking (Fig. 1). She was unable to tolerate standard medical treatment because of systemic side ef-
fects. Furthermore, her medical problems limited our surgical options, and we elected a trial of Clostridium botulinum toxin injection.
A 27-gauge needle was used as a monopolar recording device to localize the tensor veli palatini muscle. The recording needle was connected to the electromyography (EMG) machine, and needle placement was confirmed with EMG evidence of rhythmic contractions, which were rhythmic but irregular with about 78 to 84 contractions per …
Botox injections can be a good option. You need a skilled doctor to put medicine in the right area. Speach will be effected and your swollowing might also be effected. Again this is not a cure and temporary relief with side effects is what you might expect on the best case senerio.
John Lieurance, DC
Please read this and see my comments on the end of the article.
The most important step in treating myoclonus is to first identify and appropriately classify the subtype of the disorder because the pathology—and, therefore, treatments and outcomes—are cause specific in many cases. Before proceeding to therapy, it is essential to treat any underlying conditions, such as metabolic derangements and toxin or drug exposures that have led to the disorder. In many cases, treatment is not necessary; however, when myoclonus interferes with quality of life and activities of daily living, a number of therapies are available. The mainstay of treatment is with pharmacologic agents, but in specific circumstances, chemodenervation with botulinum toxin injection therapy, immunomodulatory therapy, and surgical interventions are warranted.
Few randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted on the effects of antimyoclonic drugs, and although clonazepam and valproic acid are often used in the treatment of myoclonus, they have never been formally studied for this use. Expert opinion forms the basis for the use of most drugs in treating myoclonus. The guiding principles in the pharmacologic treatment of myoclonus are (1) to recognize that therapy is empiric, targeted at symptom relief, and (2) that, although polytherapy is often required, treatment should be instituted with a single drug. The choice of drugs is based upon the answers to questions identified in the diagnostic approach—the fundamental cause and origin of the movements—and the side-effect profile of the agents. The primary drugs used to treat myoclonus include levetiracetam (Keppra®), clonazepam (Klonopin®), valproic acid (Depakote®, Depakene®), primidone (Myidone®, Mysoline®), piracetam (Nootrypl®), and acetazolamide (AK-Zol®, Diamox®).
Primary Pharmacologic Agents: Levetiracetam
Levetiracetam (Keppra®), a pyrrolidone derivative, has been shown in open-label trials and multiple case reports to have antimyoclonic activity.1-9 Because this drug is well tolerated, has no interaction with other drugs, does not require titration, and is not metabolized but is excreted unchanged in the urine, a trial is warranted in most patients with myoclonus, particularly those with proven posthypoxic cortical myoclonus.
Types of myoclonus in which levetiracetam may be useful
•Cortical1-3◦Lance Adams syndrome2-4
Mechanism of action
•Unknown, but does not appear to derive its benefit from any interaction with known mechanisms involved in inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission.
•Dosage should be adjusted based on renal function
•Should be used with caution in the elderly
I have had several patients on this. Some don’t tolerate it well. Its just another bandaid that is a temporary solution that many really don’t find changes the myoclonus significantly.
John Lieurance, D.C.